Category Archives: Credit

Applying for a Loan

In making loan requests, entrepreneurs tend to be confident that they will meet or exceed what they consider conservative financial projections. They then have trouble understanding when they receive a less than enthusiastic response. To complete the picture, however, we need to look at the process from the banker’s perspective.

“What bankers view as a good loan application is at times different from what applicants think,” says Ray Fincken, vice president of HSBC Bank USA in New York. “Applicants know the bank needs information about their company to process the loan. So in the first interview they often describe all the good things happening within their company — focusing mainly on marketing and sales.

“However, bankers are usually more interested in assessing risk and consequently learning that the company has a good core foundation. Does the company have experienced management? Do these managers have various talents and experiences to guide the company through good times and bad?”

Given confidence in the management team, the bank must look at the elements of the business plan from a more objective standpoint than the entrepreneur ever can. The critical consideration is whether the company’s major products or services provide sufficient profitability and cash flow to meet all its financial obligations, particularly payments to service the debt under consideration.

If the company is a startup, the best indicators are often the norms for the business in which the company will be competing. Are projected margins and ratios in line with others in their industry? The bank will also look at credit reports and tax returns on the key individuals involved in the startup.

If the company has some financial and credit history, the bank will check corporate tax returns and financial statements, individual financial statements, liens, litigation, agency reports such as Dun and Bradstreet, etc. To ensure finances are in order, Ray recommends receiving your personal and business credit reports prior to seeking a loan to make sure the information is correct before going through this process. Misinformation or old loans and liens may erroneously still be on the report. Taking care of these errors prior to applying for a loan can streamline the process.

Fincken says: “We look for consistent, sound cash flow from operations and good, quality assets. We look at these because they are the primary sources of repayment. We then analyze this information and compare it to other similar businesses as a guide.”

Once the records are in order, the next step is the bank’s formal application process. “Planning ahead will help you increase your chances of receiving a loan as well as streamline the loan timeline,” Fincken advises. “Put together a business plan and description of why you need financing; include three years of financial statements or projections.”

Expect to be asked, and prepare your answers to the following questions:

• How much money is needed?

• What is the purpose of the loan?

• How long do you anticipate using the money?

• How will the company be able to pay back the loan?

• How will the bank get paid if something goes wrong?

Here is a list of the most common reasons for loan denials:

• The company is deemed unable to repay the loan

• There is inadequate financial information

• The financial statements are unprofessionally prepared

• There are perceived critical weaknesses in management

• Applicants fail to demonstrate their ability to implement sound accounting and management information systems.

You would certainly be reluctant to extend credit to a prospective customer where you had significant doubt of their ability to pay. Remember that the bank’s business is to lend money, and that they must apply the same discretion to your request.

John B. Vinturella, Ph.D has over 40 years’ experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in the business opportunity site jbv.com and its associated blog. John recently released his latest book, “8 Steps to Starting a Business,” available on Amazon.

Financial Issues in Business Startup

The prospective new business owner approaching a lending institution should keep in mind the “five c’s of credit:” character, cash flow, capital, collateral, and (economic) conditions. Character consists of the borrower’s integrity, experience, and ability; particularly close attention is paid to a borrower’s credit history, which is a matter of record. Should you decide to try to fund a startup through a commercial lender, the remaining criteria are addressed in the loan request.

A primary inhibitor of business start-up is that few people have the financial cushion to give up a job for the uncertain income of a start-up venture. In a recent survey, about 30% of new business founders identified inadequate funding as their biggest hurdle, and a similar amount said lenders were too conservative. About 15% reported being unable to find investors, and a similar amount claimed a lack of collateral.

The prospective new business owner approaching a lending institution should keep in mind the “five c’s of credit“: character, cash flow, capital, collateral, and (economic) conditions. Character consists of the borrower’s integrity, experience, and ability; particularly close attention is paid to a borrower’s credit history, which is a matter of record. Should you decide to try to fund a startup through a commercial lender, the remaining criteria are addressed in the loan request.

The loan request should include a credit application, financial information such as tax returns and personal financial statements, and a brief business plan emphasizing projected financial performance of the new venture. The plan should demonstrate how the business will generate sufficient cash flow to repay the loan, specify collateral, and show the borrower’s personal investment.

In addition to servicing the loan, cash flow should also cover operating expenses, and provide for some re-investment for the increasing financial demands of a start-up venture. As collateral, banks will often lend up to 80% of the market value of real estate, and up to 50% on business assets such as equipment, inventory, and current accounts receivable. Lenders and investors often require that the bulk of start-up monies be provided by the business owner. This assures these stakeholders that the owner is committed, and has confidence in the financial projections.

When the entrepreneur can not meet the requirements of commercial lenders, and does not have a favorable arrangement with partners or other investors, the remaining options are difficult and expensive. These options include public-sector guarantees, finance companies, and the venture capital market.

Even where the start-up investment consists largely of other people’s money, the amount of financial risk for the entrepreneur is beyond what most can responsibly handle. For many with the financial means, the stress of bearing complete responsibility for the company’s direction and performance is the discouraging factor.

Once the venture is off the ground, a new set of challenges faces the entrepreneur. A recent survey showed their major concerns, named by more than half of respondents, were: “getting new business/clients”; “managing my time”; and, “promoting my business”. Another interesting question was what they missed about the corporate world. The top three responses were “company-paid health insurance”, “a regular paycheck”, and “retirement plans”.

Various estimates have been made for the failure rate of business start-ups, based on various concepts of failure and of appropriate survey methods. The consensus seems to be that less than half of new businesses survive the start-up “trauma”.

Perhaps, a major reason for what seems to be a high failure rate is that it is so easy to start a business. There is no institutionalized check of qualifications in the U.S.; on the contrary, our tax dollars fund the Small Business Administration and other agencies and programs that encourage business formation.

Another survey showed that over 80% of entrepreneurs would take a pay cut if that is what it took to keep the business going. Just over a third would sell the business, even if a good price were offered.

John B. Vinturella, Ph.D. has over 40 years’ experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in the business opportunity site www.jbv.com and its associated blog. John recently released his latest book, “8 Steps to Starting a Business”, available on Amazon.