Category Archives: Career

Venture Research Service Provider

If you are considering buying or selling a service industry business you need to start with an evaluation. This can be very complex and the use of a venture research service provider can often give you a value that you can easily defend. The following article outlines the process, and is extracted from FBB Group Ltd: https://www.fbb.com/company-information/recentarticles/how-to-value-a-service-business.

Service businesses run the gamut, from accounting firms, to drycleaners, to janitorial services, engineering, public relations firms, and many other options. Despite their disparity, they all have one thing in common: offering a service to clients.

Valuing a service business involves many factors – a tidy, one-size-fits-all formula doesn’t exist. That being said, sellers should recognize that buyers will be particularly interested in certain characteristics for most service businesses. This, again, is where a venture research service provider can come in.

Normally, valuation is based on several criteria, including: history of profitability, cash flow, overhead, intellectual property, company reputation, number of years in business, opportunities for further growth and added profits, stability of key employees/management team, and customer diversification.

Crucial areas for valuation include intellectual property, ongoing relationships with clients, and having a good team in place – ensuring the company will retain its competitive edge, even when the seller (who typically drives new and repeat business) leaves.

Without significant capital assets, key customers and employees are critical. A strong management team adds to the value of a service business (often more so than in manufacturing) and, conversely, it can detract from value when there’s a poor or inexperienced team.
Another measure of value may include the amount of market share. Companies that provide a niche service and don’t have much, if any, competition will command higher multiples of value.

Cash flow is “king,” so the primary consideration for bankers is a buyer’s ability to stay current on loans for acquisitions and working capital. Banks focus heavily on reliable cash flow for service businesses, given that there is little, to no, collateral within the service business itself.

Whether you’re in the market to buy or sell, understanding the various considerations of valuation for a service business will make the process smoother and increase the probability of a more successful transaction.

Dr. Vinturella, has over 40 years experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in the business opportunity site https://www.jbv.com and its associated blog. John recently released his latest book, “8 Steps to Starting a Business. “ See https://www.jbv.com/8steps, available on Amazon.

Entrepreneurial Career Consulting

The following is excerpted from Careers in Entrepreneurship, http://careers-in-business.com/en.htm. If you find it overwhelming, consider entrepreneurial career consulting. There are sources of free consulting such as SCORE, http://www.score.gov.

Entrepreneurs start new businesses and take on the risk and rewards of being an owner. This is the ultimate career in capitalism – putting your idea to work in a competitive economy. Some new ventures generate enormous wealth for the entrepreneur. However, the job of entrepreneur is not for everyone. You need to be hard-working, smart, creative, willing to take risks and good with people. You need to have heart, have motivation and have drive.

There are many industries where wealth creation is possible be it the Internet and IT, personal services, media, engineering or small local business (e.g., dry cleaning, electronics repair, restaurants).

But there is a downside of entrepreneurship too. Your life may lack stability and structure. Your ability to take time off may be highly limited. And you may become stressed as you manage cash flow on the one hand and expansion on the other. Three out of five new businesses in the U.S. fail within 18 months of getting started.

It’s important to be savvy and understand what is and is not realistic. The web is chock-full of come-ons promising to make you rich. Avoid promotions that require you to pay up front to learn some secret to wealth.

Look for inefficiencies in markets. Places where a better idea, a little ingenuity or some aggressive marketing could really make a difference. Think about problems that people would pay to have a solution to. It helps to know finance. It’s a must to really know your product area well. What do consumers want? What differentiates you from the competition? How do you market this product?

A formal business plan is not essential, but is normally a great help in thinking through the case for a new business. You’ll be investing more in it than anyone else, so treat yourself like a smart, skeptical investor who needs to be convinced that the math adds up for the business you propose starting.

John B. Vinturella, Ph.D. has over 40 years’ experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in the business opportunity site jbv.com and its associated blog. John recently released his latest book, “8 Steps to Starting a Business,” available on Amazon.

Franchise Business Consultant Service 2

A franchise is a continuing relationship between a franchisor and a franchisee in which the franchisor’s knowledge, image, success, manufacturing, and marketing techniques are supplied to the franchisee for a consideration. This consideration usually consists of a high “up-front” fee, and a significant royalty percentage, which generally require a fairly long time to recover.

Here are some statistics about the industry (http://www.azfranchises.com/quick-franchise-facts/):

• There are an estimated 3,000 different franchisers across 300 business categories in the U.S. which provide nearly 18 million jobs and generate over $2.1 trillion to the economy.

• Franchises account for 10.5 percent of businesses with paid employees; almost 4% of all small businesses in the USA are franchises.
• It is estimated that the franchise industry accounts for approximately 50% of all retail sales in the US.

• The average initial franchise investment is $250,000- excluding real estate; the average royalty fees paid by franchisees range from 3% to 6% of monthly gross sales.

Franchising offers those who lack business experience (but do not lack capital) a business with a good probability of success. It is a ready-made business, with all the incentives of a small business combined with the management skills of a large one. It is a way to be “in business for yourself, not by yourself.”

Franchises take many forms. Some are simply trade-name licensing arrangements, such as TrueValue Hardware, where the franchisee is provided product access and participation in an advertising cooperative. Some trade name licenses, particularly in skin-care products, are part of a multi-level marketing system, where a franchisee can designate sub-franchisees and benefit from their efforts.

Others might be distributorships, or manufacturer’s representative arrangements, such as automobile dealerships, or gasoline stations. It could be Jane’s Cadillac, or Fred’s Texaco; the product is supplied by the franchisor, but the franchisee has a fair amount of latitude in how the business is located, designed and run. The franchisor will frequently specify showroom requirements and inventory level criteria, and could grant either exclusive or non-exclusive franchise areas.

The most familiar type of franchise, however, is probably the “total concept” store such as McDonald’s. Pay your franchise fee, and they will “roll out” a store for you to operate.

The advantages can be considerable. The franchise fee buys instant product recognition built and maintained by sophisticated advertising and marketing programs. The franchisor’s management experience and depth assists the franchisee by providing employee guidelines, policies and procedures, operating experience, and sometimes even financial assistance. They provide proven methods for determining promising locations, and a successful store design and equipment configuration. Centralized purchasing gives large-buyer “clout” to each location.

The large initial cost can be difficult to raise. The highly structured environment can be more limiting than it is reassuring. Continuing royalty costs take a significant portion of profits. You may wish to use a franchise business consulting service. Several small business periodicals evaluate and rank franchise opportunities. There are now several franchise “matchmaking” firms who can assist in the evaluation process.

How do you choose among all the available franchises? Does it complement your interests? Even if you hire someone to manage the business, expect to spend a lot of time with the operation. Is the name well known? If not, what are you paying for? Is the fee structure reasonable, and all costs clearly described?

Is the franchisor professional? Evaluate them on the clarity of the agreement, and how well your rights are protected, the strength of their training and support program, and their commitment to your success. Be sure to talk to current franchisees about their experiences. Beware of a franchisor committed to a rate of growth that exceeds their ability to manage; they may not be sufficiently interested in the sales they have already made.

Is a franchise a sure path to instant riches? Is it the only hope for independent firms in today’s market? Can Jerry’s Quick Oil Change compete with SpeeDee? Does the franchise deliver business that we might not have gotten anyway? Is it really entrepreneurship; did I go into business or did my money?

This is excerpted from “8 Steps to Starting a Business.” See https://www.jbv.com/8Steps

Raising Entrepreneurial Capital

This writer, with Dr. Suzanne Erickson, is co-author of the book “Raising Entrepreneurial Capital.” The second edition of the book is currently published by Elsevier.

Raising Entrepreneurial Capital guides the reader through the stages of successfully financing a business. The book proceeds from a basic level of business knowledge, assuming that the reader understands simple financial statements, has selected a specific business, and knows how to write a business plan. It provides a broad summary of the subjects that people typically research, such as “How should your company position itself to attract private equity investment?” and “What steps can you take to improve your company’s marketability?”

Much has changed since the book was first published, and this second edition places effects of the global recession in the context of entrepreneurship, including the debt vs. equity decision, the options available to smaller businesses, and the considerations that lead to rapid growth, including venture capital, IPOs, angels, and incubators. Unlike other books of the genre, Raising Entrepreneurial Capital includes several chapters on worldwide variations in forms and availability of pre-seed capital, incubators, and the business plans they create, with case studies from Europe, Latin America, and the Pacific Rim.

Here is how one reviewer evaluates the book:

“I have been an entrepreneur, venture investor or venture capitalist most of my 30-year professional business career and have been involved in the startup of over 40 companies, some very successful and some not so successful. After reading Raising Entrepreneurial Capital, my only regret is that I did not have access to this book of business knowledge at the beginning of my career. Most of the lessons I learned on the job (many the hard way!) trying to raise money, every way known to man, are in this book and I find it amazing how much of it is accurately covered in depth by the authors. It will be a great textbook for teaching entrepreneurial finance. I have never seen a book that covers everything one needs to know in such great depth. This book should be required reading for anyone thinking about starting up a new business. It will save a lot of wasted time and heartache for a new entrepreneur.”

— Kent L. Johnson, Chairman and Managing Director, Alexander Hutton Venture Capital, Chairman of the Advisory Board of Seattle University’s Entrepreneurship Center.

John B. Vinturella, Ph.D. has over 40 years’ experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in the business opportunity site jbv.com and its associated blog. John recently released his latest book, “8 Steps to Starting a Business,” available on Amazon.

Creative Ways to Become a Business Owner In 2018

A new year, a new you: it’s a time-honored tradition to treat yourself to a spruce up as one year becomes another.

But the start of the next 12 months of your life isn’t just a chance to dust off your cobwebs and hit the gym, it’s an opportunity to make a big career change by starting a new business.

Running your own business is a challenging, but supremely rewarding, experience. If it’s something you’ve been thinking of for a while — there is no time like the present to get stuck in!

Below I have listed some of the creative ways that you can become a business owner in 2018 to help give you some direction and inspiration.

Help other businesses outsource

A B2B service-based business is hugely recession-proof. Unlike product-based businesses that ebb and flow depending on consumer demand, service businesses are always in demand. Why? Because they help other businesses stay afloat.

There are plenty of things that business owners are happy to outsource and get off their chest, including:

● HR

● Accounting & Finance

● Marketing & Comms

● Administration

● Customer Service

● IT

● Maintenance.

Whether you are a good ‘all-rounder’, or have specific skills — setting up your own B2B business is a savvy move. You may even find that your skills are best suited to an advisory or coaching role — business consultants are always in high demand.

The best B2B businesses inspire confidence, show measurable results, and help busy business owners do more with their time (and money). You can also have a bit of fun with your brand and aim it at a very specific niche market or vertical.

Test case — social media manager & business owner

There are expected to be 2.62 billion social media users in 2018. That’s 35% of the world’s total population of 7.48 billion!

Given the ever growing popularity of social media it presents an opportunity for you to start a new business in 2018 as a social media manager/consultant.

Any company with ambition of surviving the age of social media will have an outlet to connect with their followers — and many companies are increasingly falling short of what’s required of them in this new social commerce age.

Spend some time researching the different platforms, or enhancing your existing knowledge of them, and then set up a business to sell your services. You can start by just working on a few smaller contracts, and build yourself up to business owner slowly. Once you have taken on more work, be smart about scaling and invest in virtual assistants and copywriters to help you service more clients.

Make money from your own personal brand

Imagine if you could get paid just for being yourself?! OK, it’s not as easy as that — but a stellar online brand can definitely be something to monetize and profit from. If you have a compelling story to tell, a gift or flair — start making the most of what you’ve already got. A lot of online personalities only made it because they were brave enough to put themselves out there.

Number one rule: be clear on what you want to achieve from day one. If you’re looking to build a business here, you will need to invest in your branding, drive traffic, and have plenty of ways to make money from your brand. Just creating a website won’t guarantee you’ll have a business to run — be prepared to put in months of brand development time. Just because it’s also personal, doesn’t mean it’s not professional.

How to do it with blogging

If you fancy yourself as a wordsmith then you could put your gift into practice by creating a blog and making yourself the owner of your own blogging business. Gone are the days when a blog was the journal for those with dimnaliphobia. There are now a number of ways that you can make money as a blogger:

● Guest posting – you can either sell space on your own blog, or uses guest posting as a sales strategy to sell blog tie-ins like coaching calls and digital products
● Sell advertising – sell advertising space on your blog, or monetize your content through product and service reviews

● Affiliate marketing – this is where you link out to a product being sold on another site. Each time someone follows the link and buys that product you get a commission — Amazon’s affiliate program is very easy to get set up with

● Training – you can sell your services as a blogger to those looking to become a blogger and show them how it’s done through courses, or training guides/videos.
Start investing in other businesses

When you hear “flip” you probably think of burgers….Well, while you could make some extra cash setting up a burger business, we think that you’ll find flipping websites and businesses a much more creative way of becoming a business owner in 2018.

Investing in other businesses and being part of their journey is a surefire way to quickly become a successful entrepreneur, and you don’t need bags of cash to get started.

How do you do it? It’s simple. Flipping websites is the art of buying a website and then selling it on for a profit. You can do this by visiting one of the many online marketplaces and then selecting from the vast array of websites on offer. Improving a website generally comes down to creating better, fresher content. Ecommerce stores are especially great website investments, and you may even find that you stumble on an exciting brand you want to take all the way yourself!

While it’s difficult to put a precise figure on how much you could earn from the business of website flipping, some flippers have made over $50,000 in less than two years. Suffice to say, it’s a profitable business to be in. Use your passion to find an underserved niche.

Great businesses are created when passion meets niche demand. Mine your fields of interests to find something that you’d be happy to devote lots of time to, but only if you can justify your investment with a ready and waiting marketplace. Peddling your dreams to an empty room is just depressing!

Vegans — your new customers?

Due in part to the age of millennials and now linksters, veganism has grown over 500% in the US since 2014. This makes producing vegan food not just a creative business idea for 2018, but a cash almond that you can milk to bring you a company that has the potential to explode. Vegan food sales is a market worth over $3.1bn a year. You could make 2018 the year that you take a piece of that market for a business that you own.

The key is to find a way of turning an existing non-vegan food into one that is suitable for vegans, as this way you can corner a part of the market and have a product that is totally unique. Focusing on nutrients, health, and superfoods is also a lucrative way to make the most of changing food trends. Another angle to take would be to create vegan products (makeup, fashion etc) and make the most of ethical consumerism.

For 2018, make your New Year’s resolution not to have a new you, but to be the owner of a new business.

Recommended reading: Financial Issues In Business Startup<

Victoria Greene is a freelance writer and ecommerce specialist. On her blog, VictoriaEcommerce, she shares her experience in blogging, ecommerce, and entrepreneurship. She is passionate about helping companies and individuals develop their business.

A Rough Cut on Feasibility

The Census of Retail Trade provides the average number of stores per capita for a variety of retail outlets. Based on their data, we can determine how well our proposed market area is served on a relative basis for the type of business we plan to start. For example, there is, on average, a stationery store for every 33,000 people; for every 26,000 people there is one bookstore and one nursery and garden supply store.

A piano tuner recently moved to Buffalo, NY, and would like to assess the business possibilities for him in his new home. He plans to estimate how many piano tuners the greater Buffalo area can support, and compare that to the number listed online. How do we advise him as to how to estimate the “right” number of tuners for the area?

One approach is simply to guess. Would it be 1, 10, 50, or 100? Are you comfortable with this approach? I am not. An approach I would be comfortable with would be to search for data on estimates of how many piano tuners per capita there are in the U.S., and apply that ratio to the Buffalo area population (let’s use 1.3 million). Is data on this likely to be available? Test your resourcefulness by trying to find it.

Assuming that data is not available, we must go to the “some assembly required” approach to estimating, that is, deriving the estimate from data which is available modified by related local and national data, norms, and “rules of thumb.” While this seems as indirect as to be little better than just guessing, it can be a very useful exercise. If nothing else, it causes us to identify some important variables and how they relate to our business of interest. The inaccuracies of compounding estimates can be minimized by working in ranges to give us a “ballpark” figure.

How can I derive a meaningful estimate from generally available information? It would be interesting to know what percentage of American households own a piano, and how often they get it tuned. If the data is national, we may need to apply some local adjustment factor. Given the annual number of piano tunings, we can divide by the annual capacity of a tuner to determine how many are needed.

I will do an “off-the-top-of-my-head” calculation to illustrate the method, then leave it to you to provide real values:

Buffalo has about 400,000 households population divided by 3 members average); 8% of American households own pianos. I can think of no reason to apply any local adjustment to this figure, so we are talking about roughly 32,000 pianos. My guess is that two-thirds of all pianos are merely furniture, so that the remainder of about 11,000 is played regularly and in need of tuning. Tuners recommend that a piano be serviced twice a year, but my guess is that the average is probably once a year for active pianos, or 11,000 tunings per year.

A tuner can service 2 to 4 pianos a day; let us say 3 per day, 5 days a week, 50 weeks a year, or 750 tunings per year per tuner. To provide Buffalo’s 11,000 annual tunings would require almost 15 tuners. The phone book lists 9. Sounds promising!

Could it have been done more scientifically? How? Would discussions with piano tuners and music stores have been useful? Are there any journals worth consulting? Would a survey have helped?

Are pianos in places other than homes? Are there tuners without an online presence?

The Census of Retail Trade provides the average number of stores per capita for a variety of retail outlets. Based on their data, we can determine how well our proposed market area is served on a relative basis for the type of business we plan to start. For example, there is, on average, a stationery store for every 33,000 people; for every 26,000 people there is one bookstore and one nursery and garden supply store. The population can presumably support a barber shop for every 2,200 residents, and a furniture store for every 3,000.

How do you like this? How many would you have guessed without this analysis? Does the result seem reasonable? Enough on which to base the opening of a business?

John B. Vinturella, Ph.D. has over 40 years’ experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in the business opportunity site jbv.com and its associated blog. John recently released his latest book, “8 Steps to Starting a Business,” available on Amazon.

Financial Issues in Business Startup

The prospective new business owner approaching a lending institution should keep in mind the “five c’s of credit:” character, cash flow, capital, collateral, and (economic) conditions. Character consists of the borrower’s integrity, experience, and ability; particularly close attention is paid to a borrower’s credit history, which is a matter of record. Should you decide to try to fund a startup through a commercial lender, the remaining criteria are addressed in the loan request.

A primary inhibitor of business start-up is that few people have the financial cushion to give up a job for the uncertain income of a start-up venture. In a recent survey, about 30% of new business founders identified inadequate funding as their biggest hurdle, and a similar amount said lenders were too conservative. About 15% reported being unable to find investors, and a similar amount claimed a lack of collateral.

The prospective new business owner approaching a lending institution should keep in mind the “five c’s of credit“: character, cash flow, capital, collateral, and (economic) conditions. Character consists of the borrower’s integrity, experience, and ability; particularly close attention is paid to a borrower’s credit history, which is a matter of record. Should you decide to try to fund a startup through a commercial lender, the remaining criteria are addressed in the loan request.

The loan request should include a credit application, financial information such as tax returns and personal financial statements, and a brief business plan emphasizing projected financial performance of the new venture. The plan should demonstrate how the business will generate sufficient cash flow to repay the loan, specify collateral, and show the borrower’s personal investment.

In addition to servicing the loan, cash flow should also cover operating expenses, and provide for some re-investment for the increasing financial demands of a start-up venture. As collateral, banks will often lend up to 80% of the market value of real estate, and up to 50% on business assets such as equipment, inventory, and current accounts receivable. Lenders and investors often require that the bulk of start-up monies be provided by the business owner. This assures these stakeholders that the owner is committed, and has confidence in the financial projections.

When the entrepreneur can not meet the requirements of commercial lenders, and does not have a favorable arrangement with partners or other investors, the remaining options are difficult and expensive. These options include public-sector guarantees, finance companies, and the venture capital market.

Even where the start-up investment consists largely of other people’s money, the amount of financial risk for the entrepreneur is beyond what most can responsibly handle. For many with the financial means, the stress of bearing complete responsibility for the company’s direction and performance is the discouraging factor.

Once the venture is off the ground, a new set of challenges faces the entrepreneur. A recent survey showed their major concerns, named by more than half of respondents, were: “getting new business/clients”; “managing my time”; and, “promoting my business”. Another interesting question was what they missed about the corporate world. The top three responses were “company-paid health insurance”, “a regular paycheck”, and “retirement plans”.

Various estimates have been made for the failure rate of business start-ups, based on various concepts of failure and of appropriate survey methods. The consensus seems to be that less than half of new businesses survive the start-up “trauma”.

Perhaps, a major reason for what seems to be a high failure rate is that it is so easy to start a business. There is no institutionalized check of qualifications in the U.S.; on the contrary, our tax dollars fund the Small Business Administration and other agencies and programs that encourage business formation.

Another survey showed that over 80% of entrepreneurs would take a pay cut if that is what it took to keep the business going. Just over a third would sell the business, even if a good price were offered.

John B. Vinturella, Ph.D. has over 40 years’ experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in the business opportunity site www.jbv.com and its associated blog. John recently released his latest book, “8 Steps to Starting a Business”, available on Amazon.

We are all self-employed

We are all self-employed; even as employees of a firm, we are still primarily personal career managers.

Many people equate being self-employed with being an entrepreneur. We suggest that few of us are entrepreneurs, but all of us are self-employed. To make the distinction, let us explore the requirements of entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurship is generally characterized by some type of innovation, a significant investment, and a strategy that values expansion. The entrepreneur is often quite different in mindset from a manager, who is generally charged with using existing resources to make an existing business run well. The roles of entrepreneur and manager are not necessarily incompatible, but entrepreneurs are seldom patient enough to be good managers.

Mindset of an entrepreneur

It is often instructive to analyze the experiences that have formed our attitudes toward entrepreneurship. A recent study showed that 70% of business startups were by a person who had an entrepreneurial parent.

The U.S. Small Business Administration has developed a Checklist for Going into Business that leads the prospective entrepreneur through a skills inventory that includes supervisory and/or managerial experience, business education, knowledge about the specific business of interest, and willingness to acquire the missing necessary skills. A commitment to filling any knowledge or experience gap is a very positive indicator of success.

Personal characteristics required, according to the SBA, include leadership, decisiveness, and competitiveness. Important factors in personal style include will power, and self-discipline, comfort with the planning process, and with working with others. Can you objectively rate yourself in these dimensions?

Peter F. Drucker, author of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, says that anybody from any organization can learn how to be an entrepreneur, that it is “systematic work.” But there is a difference between learning how to be, and succeeding as an entrepreneur. “When a person earns a degree in physics, he becomes a physicist,” says Morton Kamien, a professor of entrepreneurship at Northwestern University. “But if you were to earn a degree in entrepreneurship, that wouldn’t make you an entrepreneur.”

Why we are all self-employed

The reasons commonly given for people going into business for themselves are: freedom from a work routine; being your own boss; doing what you want when you want; boredom with the current job; financial desires, and; a perceived opportunity. Which of these might be sufficient to get you to take the risk?

Several “yardsticks” have been proposed for measuring whether a person is a likely candidate to be a successful entrepreneur, but the real challenge is in accurately applying them to ourselves.

We are all self-employed; even as employees of a firm, we are still primarily personal career managers. Trends toward downsizing and outsourcing will almost certainly lead to smaller companies utilizing networks of specialists. Fortune magazine suggests that “Almost everyone, up through the highest ranks of professionals, will feel increased pressure to specialize, or at least to package himself or herself as a marketable portfolio of skills.”

How marketable is your portfolio of skills? Many think they have several years’ experience, when what they really have is one year’s experience several times. Are you continuing to learn, and keeping up with developments in your field? The best approach to preparing for an entrepreneurial career is often to find some aspect of your field in which you can become expert.

John B. Vinturella, Ph.D. has 40 years experience as a management and strategic consultant, entrepreneur, and college professor. He is a principal in business opportunity sites www.jbv.com and myhorizontravels.com, and maintains business and political blogs. This article is excerpted from his latest book “8 Steps to Starting a Business.” Ask for it at your favorite bookstore or buy it from Amazon.

8 Steps Education Fund

How would you like to donate entrepreneurship textbooks to schools to encourage teaching of the topic?

8 Steps to Starting a Business” is my latest book on entrepreneurship. It is written at a level suitable for community colleges and advanced high schools.  The book is well researched, interesting (with lots of case studies) and challenging.

The book is self-published with a retail price of $20. The total cost per copy (printing, warehousing, shipping, sales tax …) is about $12.

The book is for sale to you at $12. A typical school donation might be 30 books, or $360. You may designate the school to receive the books, or contribute them to partially funded schools or to libraries. A typical library donation might be $96.

The process will be fully transparent. I will post every donation and any expense not covered by the $12 price. Thank you for your generosity. Donate now by going to GoFundMe.